Volume 2 Issue 3
Urban Flooding Assessment using SWMM Model
AbstractTo avoid the Urban Flooding scenario during rainy season, accessing the ground reality of the study area and running a SWAT analysis would help us to access and study the sub catchment parameters. The present case study of IIT Delhi campus will help us to deal to provide a solution to storm water management problem in an urbanized area. A two-dimensional (2D) SWMM model will be used to access the natural stream flow in the study area and 24 hours rainfall data is used as input parameters. This model will assess how to design an efficient drainage system and how we can overcome the flooding phenomenon. This study provides the insights that how importance it is channelized storm water flow according to natural stream flows.
|1 – 9|
Multivariate Statistical Approach for the Assessment of Water Quality of Mahanadi Basin, Odisha
AbstractThis research paper explores spatial and temporal water quality fluctuations to examine massive and complex water quality data sets used to quantify the influence of agricultural operations and household pollution sources on the Mahanadi River in Odisha. For a ten-year sampling study, (2008-2018), data sets containing 20 parameters were collected at 19 sampling sites along the river's length. The nineteen sampling locations were also split into three groups i.e. cluster 1 represents low polluted sites, Cluster 2 represents moderately polluted sites and cluster 3 depicts high polluted sites using the hierarchical clustering approach (HCA). It shows spatial and seasonal variations that are frequently symptomatic of contamination from rainfall or other sources. It yields positive results, with three separate groups of similarity across monitoring stations representing the river system's various water quality indicators. The FA/PCA identified the five most important factors, accounting for 93.899 percent of the total variance in the data matrix, allowing the selected parameters to be grouped based on common traits and the frequency of overall changes or variances within each group to be assessed. TSS, TKN, EC, TDS, B, SAR, and Fe have all been correlated with (loading > 0.7) in the 1 st PC, which accounted for 43.133 % of the total variance. COD, NH3-N, Free ammonia, and fluoride were all linked to the 2 nd PC, which accounted for 23.055 % of the total variation, whereas the 3 rd , 4 th , and 5 th PCs, while accounting for 12.866 %, 8.603 %, and 6.241 % of the total variation, respectively. Five separate VFs with Eigenvalues > 1 were justified by the maximum variance rotation of the PC (original). This illustrates that point source, non-point source and natural occurrences are the primary cause of changes in water chemical concentrations.
|10 – 39|
Surface Water Quality Assessment along Mahanadi River using WQI and GIS
AbstractSoil moisture and soil temperature are two important parameters that have a wider implication on crop production. The drop of soil moisture and temperature has an impact involving climate, vegetation and drought. The presence of soil moisture does not ensure its availability to a crop but the force by which water is held by soil particle is important. The amount of work done to extract soil moisture is generally expressed as stress. It is necessary to understand the extent of stress for proper water resources management. The soil moisture index (SMI) is a criterion that denotes the extent of stress experienced by a crop. The temperature also has an impact on germination and production. In the present study, we developed a SMI for different locations in Sikkim. The index ranges from +5 to -5. The negative index indicates extreme stress. The study indicated during winter the index goes beyond-3. Considering wilting point stress as 500 and 700 kPa. The soil temperature was also observed to fall below 15 C. Further, it was observed that soil temperature and moisture are strongly correlated to each other. The SMI can play an important role in adopting suitable water management practices for improved crop production.Due to various environmental and natural or artificial disturbances, determining the purity of river water is an important task. The challenge is that getting the water quality within the standard permitted levels for drinking, industrial, and agricultural applications are deemed extremely challenging. The impact of agricultural operations and residential pollutants on Mahanadi Basin water quality was assessed. The purpose is to investigate the Mahanadi River's water quality using the water quality index method and GIS software. For an 18-year detection time, twenty parameters were collected (2000-2018). These constituents were measured to learn more about their geospatial distribution and pollution levels. A broad catchment area with 19 water quality sites was chosen because the rivers and streams pass through a geomorphic, geographical, hydrologic, and industrially diverse region. PH levels are slightly alkaline. Other parameter analysis results were compared to WHO-recommended maximum allowable limit values. In this investigation, the WQI values calculated vary from 28.28 to 60.10. The Mahanadi River has a well to poor water quality rating, according to the WQI map. However, two stations, Cuttack D/s and Paradeep, have low water quality. All of the other sites are in a good category. The most significant contaminants are TC, BOD, and TKN. As per Nemerow's pollution index, some parameters had greater values above the WHO's acceptable and allowed thresholds. Furthermore, Pearson's coefficient analysis demonstrated a significant and particular association between the variables under study. Despite the conflict between development and conservation, this result will undoubtedly aid policymakers in achieving sustainable environmental management.
|40 – 78|
Assessment of Physico-chemical Characteristics and Phytoplankton Diversity in Pond Ecosystems of Tripura,India
Payel Debbarma, Prabir Barman, Sujit Das, Sourabh Deb
AbstractPonds play an important role in the retention of water, supply of aquatic products, and biodiversity of an area. A pond ecosystem is a composition of plants, animals, microorganisms, and the physical environment in which they live and has different elements that work to maintain ecological balance. Tripura is known for its abundant pond ecosystem, which the community manages for its livelihood purpose. In this study, three different-sized ponds were selected from the Khowai district of Tripura. The water physic-chemical properties and plankton diversity of three different sized ponds were assessed as per the standard procedure. It was observed that the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is high in the large pond, whereas the level of dissolved oxygen (DO) was found to be less in this category of the pond. However,the DO level was higher in small ponds, and the medium pond is also within the acceptable limit. The pH results also revealed that the water has become chiefly alkaline in a large pond and moderately acidic in a medium pond. During the study, 43 species of phytoplanktons from 4 families were identified. Maximum species (31) were recorded from small ponds followed by medium (17 species) and a large pond (15 species). The most dominant phytoplankton families were Chlorophyceae (37%) and Eugleanophyceae (26%) in pond ecosystems. Though the small-sized ponds are more diverse and suitable for aquatic life, however, the large-sized ponds are economically viable for this region. So, the people and Government should take some initiatives for conserving those pond ecosystems for the betterment of society.
|79 – 88|
Evaluation of Temperature and Precipitation Changes under Climate Change Scenarios in Sikkim Himalayan region in India
Sonu Kumar, Santosh Rangrao Yadav, Atul Kumar, Triambak Baghel , Malay Pramanik
AbstractSince precipitation and temperature are the major driving factors for the fragility of the Himalayan ecosystem and resources, it is crucial to understand the changes in temperature and precipitation under climate change scenarios to take appropriate adaptation measures. This work, therefore, examined the changes of precipitation and temperature under all Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) scenarios of climate change in the Sikkim Himalayan region of India. The datasets from two different global circulation models (GCMs) have been used to analyseSikkim’s;s daily precipitation and temperature for the near, mid, and far future. The linear scaling bias correction method (LCBCM) was employed to remove the bias because of a significant difference between the raw and observed monthly climate data for both GCMs.The predictions based on bias-corrected GCMs data under all RCP scenarios indicated that Tmax and Tmin are projected to increase in the near, mid and far futures. The projection of CSIRO_MK 3.6 model indicated that the increase in Tmax from near to far ranges from 1.0 to 1.5°C, 0.8 to 2.8°C, 0.4 to 2.3°C and 0.5 to 4.2°C under the four scenarios, respectively. Similarly, the projected to increase in Tmin from near to far ranges from 1.5 to 2.0°C, 1.1 to 3.5°C, 0.5 to 3.0°C and 0.8 to 4.5°C in RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5 scenarios, correspondingly. The results also showed that in climate change scenarios, the rate of precipitation is expected to increase, which could lead to the rise of snowmelt and flooding in the near future. This study is recommended to increase the number GCMs in future studies to reduce the uncertainty in future prediction and utilize the LCBC method for bias correction.
|89 – 106|
NanoHydroxyapatite: A Promising Material for Wastewater Remediation
Shruti Sharma, Ajai Singh
AbstractIn recent years, increasing environmental issues, particularly relating to biogenic and chemical pollution of water, have become a significant threat to both human health and the ecosystems. Clean water, which is free from pathogens and toxic chemicals, is vital to human health. The blue planet is encountering remarkable challenges in meeting the ever-increasing demands of clean water. Hence, the removal of these toxic pollutants is necessary and, has attracted considerable efforts particularly via adsorption technology. The aim of this review is to summarize other synthesis methods and recent applications of hydroxyapatite-nanoparticles as adsorbents and catalysts. With the advances in materials science and nanotechnology, new materials have been regularly fabricated for several purposes. Hydroxyapatite is among the most representative ceramic materials and considered promising for long- term containment of toxic pollutants due to its large surface area, high reactivity, catalytic potential and presence of a large number of active sites. Surface properties of synthetic well-crystallized hydroxyapatite were also investigated by many researchers. Normally, two models of adsorption isotherms (Freundlich and Langmuir) are employed to correlate the data in order to understand the adsorption mechanism. The study on hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanopowder made from fish waste (skin, bones, and scales) has brought to its beneficial use as an adsorbent even for lead removal in water. These novel materials promise a feasible advance in the development of new, easy to handle and low-cost water purifying methods. The wastewater parametric conditions and the synthesized hydroxyapatite-based materials covered herein are expected to inspire and stimulate further applications of nanoceramic-based materials in the environmental science.
|89 – 106|