Soil moisture and soil temperature are two important parameters that have a wider implication on crop production. The drop of soil moisture and temperature has an impact involving climate, vegetation and drought. The presence of soil moisture does not ensure its availability to a crop but the force by which water is held by soil particle is important. The amount of work done to extract soil moisture is generally expressed as stress. It is necessary to understand the extent of stress for proper water resources management. The soil moisture index (SMI) is a criterion that denotes the extent of stress experienced by a crop. The temperature also has an impact on germination and production. In the present study, we developed a SMI for different locations in Sikkim. The index ranges from +5 to -5. The negative index indicates extreme stress. The study indicated during winter the index goes beyond-3. Considering wilting point stress as 500 and 700 kPa. The soil temperature was also observed to fall below 15 C. Further, it was observed that soil temperature and moisture are strongly correlated to each other. The SMI can play an important role in adopting suitable water management practices for improved crop production.Due to various environmental and natural or artificial disturbances, determining the purity of river water is an important task. The challenge is that getting the water quality within the standard permitted levels for drinking, industrial, and agricultural applications are deemed extremely challenging. The impact of agricultural operations and residential pollutants on Mahanadi Basin water quality was assessed. The purpose is to investigate the Mahanadi River’s water quality using the water quality index method and GIS software. For an 18-year detection time, twenty parameters were collected (2000-2018). These constituents were measured to learn more about their geospatial distribution and pollution levels. A broad catchment area with 19 water quality sites was chosen because the rivers and streams pass through a geomorphic, geographical, hydrologic, and industrially diverse region. PH levels are slightly alkaline. Other parameter analysis results were compared to WHO-recommended maximum allowable limit values. In this investigation, the WQI values calculated vary from 28.28 to 60.10. The Mahanadi River has a well to poor water quality rating, according to the WQI map. However, two stations, Cuttack D/s and Paradeep, have low water quality. All of the other sites are in a good category. The most significant contaminants are TC, BOD, and TKN. As per Nemerow’s pollution index, some parameters had greater values above the WHO’s acceptable and allowed thresholds. Furthermore, Pearson’s coefficient analysis demonstrated a significant and particular association between the variables under study. Despite the conflict between development and conservation, this result will undoubtedly aid policymakers in achieving sustainable environmental management.